Thursday, December 26, 2019

Whitness Essay - 1284 Words

In the film Witness starring Harrison Ford, producer Peter Weir has created two different worlds with different value systems. He has done this through the use of juxta-positioning, camera angles set at different heights and the process of character development. In the Film, John Book played by Harrison Ford plays the parts of detective, protector, and refugee, all to solve the murder case of another Police Officer. The only witness to the murder is 7-year-old Samuel who is unofficially under Books protection against everyone from corrupt cops to the murderer. In the film Witness starring Harrison Ford, the producer, Peter Weir, has created two different worlds with different value systems. He has done this through the use of†¦show more content†¦First we hear Schaeffers voice starting to interrogate Carter on Johns whereabouts, then we see Schaeffers shoulders and back pass right in front of the camera but not showing his face. This creates a dominant presence over Carter who at first just sits there not saying anything. Then the scene changes, and suddenly the viewer is seeing the predicament from Carters perspective and instantly everything changes. Because Carter is sitting down, Schaeffer appears so much bigger and more intimidating than real and instantly the viewer feels exactly like Carter, threatened. This is totally contrary to the Amish society where the viewer is always presented with an equal view of the scene with no one at a clear advantage. The juxta-positioning of two of the scenes above, the barn building and the interrogation of Carter, also contribute to the creating of the two worlds. First the viewer is witness to the interrogation which whole purpose works towards Schaeffers own ends backing the contempory way of thinking of self before others. Straight after the scene is over the viewer then witnesses a close-knit Amish community, working together peacefully towards a common goal. This causes two extremes to be placed one after the other, leading to proposed direct comparison by Peter Weir. By placing the two scenes right after each other, a direct comparison is drawn, compared with if the scenes were spaced more widelyShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of American Culture884 Words   |  4 Pagesyet and Im not even sure if I want to anymore. I must also admit that today, in those tiny rare moments France comes into my mind, I see it as a life blessing that put me in the right path to get to know myself better. I got to be in Brazil to whitness and experience myself the blossoming of the feminist spring that has spread around the country for the past years and that has shed light on important issues such as gender, race, sexuality, and inequality. I had the chance to question myself, myRead MoreThe Autobiography Of Malcolm X1701 Words   |  7 Pagesthere has beeb times in my life where I needed to change something that would better me, however I was stuck in my ways and didnt possess the willingness to change. Willingness is an important component in any overall behavior change. As you read my essay you will see that he also possesses that quality as a child. Many African American families went through alot in the early days and the little family was no exception. Malcolm little was born on May 19, 1925, to Rev. Earl Little and Louise little.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Conflict Perspective of Deviance and Deviants Essay...

The Conflict Perspective of Deviance and Deviants Works Cited Not Included  · When it comes to the conflict perspective and deviance, researchers have discovered one of the most influential lines of theory and research (Quinney, 1980; Chambliss and Seidman, 1982; Swaaningen, 1997; Arrigo, 1999). Marxist criminologists see deviance as a product of the exploitative nature of the ruling class. Deviance is a behavior that the rich and powerful see as threatening to their interests. An example of the conflict perspective relating to deviance is white- collar crimes. (Edwin Sutherland {1940,1983}) White-collar crime is any crime committed by respectable and high status people in the course of their occupations. (Lower status†¦show more content†¦There are actual statistics showing that African Americans and Latinos are treated more severely and harshly than whites at all points in the criminal justice process. Examples range from arrest through indictment, conviction, sentencing and parole. (Skolnick, 1998; Schaefer, 2000). In most cases when the criminal offense is the same, Latinos and African Americans will be the first to be convicted, and serve more time in prison than whites. (Huizinga and Elliott, 1987; Bridges and Crutchfield, 1988; Klein, Turner and Petersilia, 1988) There are several reasons for this differential treatment between African Americans and whites when it comes to committing crimes. For example, minorities do not have the economic resources to buy good legal services. Thus the outcome of their trials will most likely not be in their favor. Another factor is that that crimes against whites tend to be punished more that the crimes against minorities. (McManus, 1985). The reason for this is that society sees minority interest as less important than the interest of whites. The best example of all is victim discounting, which reduces the seriousness of crimes directed against members of lower social classes. (Gibbons, 1985). In conclusion, if the victim is less valuable, the crime is less serious, and the penalty is less severe. 3) Please defineShow MoreRelatedDeviance Theory Analysis Essay1564 Words   |  7 PagesDeviance Theory Analysis - Identify Deviance for situations and explain Within any given society, individuals are expected to behave and or conduct themselves in a given acceptable manner. However, there are instances when particular individuals act contrary to the set standards and violate the cultural norms. Such acts may include acts of crime, theft, defiance, breaking of rules, and truancy just to mention a few. Deviance could thus be viewed as the intentional or accidental violation of theRead MoreOutline and assess the view that crime and deviance are socially constructed1021 Words   |  5 Pagesand assess the view that crime and deviance are socially constructed There has been a pleather of research regarding the issue of crime and deviance. A definition of crime and deviance can be explained in relative terms which are dependant on any particular society’s interpretation of crime and deviance. Cultures differ from one society to another and the general consensus of right and wrong can also evolve throughout time. Definitions of crime and deviance can evolve with factors such as timeRead MoreWhat Deviance Is Today s Society Essay1081 Words   |  5 PagesWhat defines deviance in today’s society? Is it the abnormal things that people don’t usually do or is it just criminal behavior? Deviance has brought up many questions on what could be defined as it. Deviance is usually shaped by society. It can be defined as the violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law (OpenStax 142). Sociologist want to see why deviance has so many different areas and how it effects a g roup in a society. For exampleRead MoreCrime And Deviance1550 Words   |  7 Pagesstudying crimes and deviance, sociologists look to explain what types of behavior are defined as deviant as opposed to criminal, who defines deviant behaviors, why people become deviant, and how society deals with deviant behavior. Deviance is defined by sociologists are behavior that significantly goes against expected rules and norms. Criminal behavior is behavior that violates the law. Sociology studies groups as opposed to individuals, so when studying crime and deviance, sociologists are lookingRead MoreDeviance : Deviance And Deviance1292 Words   |  6 PagesCharacterizing deviance All Sociologists characterize deviant conduct as conduct that is seen as disregarding expected standards and principles. Deviance is significantly more than simply basic non-similarity; it is conduct that hauls out fundamentally from social desires. The sociological meaning of deviance puts accentuation on social connection, not ones conduct. Sociologists view abnormality as far as procedures inside of a gathering, judgements and definitions, not generally as curious individualRead MoreDeviance: Social Control Essay772 Words   |  4 PagesIn todays world deviance is everywhere.Where did it come from ? I want to know what is deviance and what reasons adoes it exist .So in this paper I will discover these answers. Deviance is any behavior that does not conform to the prevailing norms of a society.Deviance is the recognized violation of cultural norms .Deviance is measured by sociteis reaction , its is measured by societies life style ,only behavior that is defined unacceptable in a culture is deviant. Deviance violates some groupsRead MoreThe Ever-Changing Deviant Society Essay1499 Words   |  6 Pageswrong or deviant. Why is this not deviant to this particular family though? Soon you will learn the characteristics of deviance, relevancy of deviance to society, problems arising from deviance, causes of deviance and how deviance has changed throughout the years. So what, really, is deviance? According to John Macionis in Society: The Basics (2008), deviance is â€Å"the recognized violation of cultural norms†. These norms â€Å"guide virtually all human activities, [making] †¦ the concept of deviance quiteRead MoreDefining Deviance1080 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Defining Deviance Deviance- doing something different from the normal Sociological Perspectives on Deviance   Formal Deviance- breaking a law or rule example: crime   Informal Deviance- doing something different from the customary Social groups create deviance by applying rules to certain people, making them â€Å"outsiders† Behavior that is deviant or normal depending on the situation Deviance stabilizes society Durkheim thinks that societies use deviance to create and point out the standard norms TheRead MoreDeviance : A Sociological Perspective824 Words   |  4 Pagesones. Deviance is used by society to evaluate behaviors that take place during everyday social norms. Usually most individuals agree or conform to certain behavior or actions. Deviance is defined is numerous ways. Researchers believe that deviance is violation of social norms. Some believe deviant behavior is when one is breaking the law or acting out in a negative manner. Individuals use specific words to classify deviant acts from a sociological perspective. There are crimes that are deviant actionsRead MoreThe Theory Of Body Types, And The Y Chromosome Theory1194 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction to Sociology March 26, 2016 Deviance Many different theories exist regarding deviance. Biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives have applied their different thought processes to produce many theories. Some of these ideas have been discredited, however some remain significant today. Sociological theories differ from biological and psychological theories by looking at external factors rather than internal ones. Biological theories on deviance are the result of looking for answers

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Sam Menedes Essay Example For Students

Sam Menedes Essay Director. Born August 1, 1965, in Redding, England. Raised by his mother, an author of childrens books, after his parents divorce, Mendes grew up in north London. He attended Cambridge University, graduating in 1987. After graduation, he got a low-level job at the Chichester Festival Theater. When a veteran director dropped out of a production of London Assurance, the 23-year-old Mendes was asked to step in. The production became a hit, and soon moved to Haymarkets Theatre Royal. Mendess second effort, The Cherry Orchard, starring Dame Judi Dench, opened later that same year. By the end of 1991, Mendes had staged several productions for the renowned Royal Shakespeare Company, including Troilus and Cressida, starring Ralph Fiennes, and The Alchemist. He also helmed the acclaimed The Rise and Fall of Little Voice (1992), starring Jane Horrocks, which was adapted into a 1998 film version, Little Voice, co-starring Horrocks and Michael Caine. In 1992, Mendes became the artistic director for the Donmar Warehouse, Londons prestigious non-profit theater. At the Donmar, Mendes staged innovative productions of Richard III (1993) and The Glass Menagerie (1996), as well as a striking update of Cabaret, which opened in 1994 and featured Horrocks and Alan Cumming. Also in 1994, he directed a hit revival of Oliver! at the London Palladium, which became the theaters longest-running production to date in 1998. Mendes forged a friendship with legendary playwright Stephen Sondheim, directing a version of his Assassins in 1992 at the Donmar and a highly popular London revival of Company in 1996. Considered one of Britains hottest directing commodities, Mendes made a triumphant emergence on the American theater scene in the spring of 1998, when he brought his productions of Cabaret and Othello to New York. Cumming reprised his Cabaret role on Broadway, co-starring with Natasha Richardson; the updated version of Othello, which Mendes directed for the Royal National Theater Company, had a well-reviewed run at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. In December 1998, Mendes brought his hit London production of The Blue Room to Broadway, featuring Nicole Kidman in a starring role that included a much-talked-about nude scene. After the tremendous success of Cabaret in particular, Mendes attracted the attention of executives at Dreamworks in Hollywoodthe production company headed by Steven Spielberg, Jeff rey Katzenberg, and David Geffenwho hired him to direct his first feature film, American Beauty (1999). Heralded as one of the most original and emotionally arresting films of the year, the darkly comic tale of American suburbia and its underside earned numerous accolades, including Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay (for first-time screenwriter Alan Ball), and Best Actor (Kevin Spacey). Annette Bening, who starred as the materialistic wife of Spacey’s character, also earned an Oscar nomination for Best Actress. In early 2000, Mendes directed the long-awaited workshop production of Sondheims Wise Guys, but withdrew from the project after its move to Broadway was put off yet again. Mendes, a bachelor, has reportedly been romantically linked to the actresses Rachel Weisz, Horrocks, and most recently Calista Flockhart, star of the hit Fox series Ally McBeal.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Lens Also Reflects Essay Example For Students

The Lens Also Reflects Essay Colonial Attitudes in Post-Colonial CriticismA critique of a system often functions as a magnifying lens, bringing into focus the smaller components of a macroscopic system. E. M. Forster critiques the colonial mentality in such a way in A Passage to India the individual characters that constitute the system of colonialism in India are magnified and set as an example of this system. However, a magnifying lens often catches the light and reflects a ghostlike image of the observer over what is observed. So too does Forsters own prejudices and beliefs, rooted in the system of colonialism, appear omnipresent throughout the novel. While making a strong argument against colonialism, Forster is constantly reproducing a notion of the other, the non-English, non-Western, the non-Forster that compromises the integrity of his novel. We will write a custom essay on The Lens Also Reflects specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Forsters creation of the other begins with his perspectives of the physical India. There is something hostile in the soil. It either yields, and the foot sinks into a depression, or else it is unexpectedly rigid and sharp, pressing stones or crystals against the tread (Forster, A Passage to India, 16). By describing the land as hostile, Forster creates an antagonistic India, unfriendly to both native and foreigner.The image of a hostile land prevents comparison to the Western homeland of the reader and creates a boundary between viewer and viewed. Forster not only separates the land through describing it as actively hostile, but by portraying it as ugly and repulsive. The novel is set in the city of Chandrapore, and Forster constantly provides images of filth and squalor. Edged rather than washed by the river Ganges, it trails for a couple of miles along the bank, scarcely undistinguishable from the rubbish it deposits so freely (3). The criticism of the land extends to the city: The streets are mean, the temples ineffective, and although a few fine houses exist they are hidden away in gardens or down alleys whose filth deters all but the invited guest (3) By portraying India as hostile and unappealing, India repels and disgusts the reader. It is difficult to find praiseworthy descriptions of India, and the novel thus fosters a desire to distance oneself from the physical India. This distancing is compounded by unfavourable comparisons of India to Europe. and Fielding often attempted analogies between this peninsula and that other, smaller and more exquisitely shaped, that stretches into the classic waters of the Mediterranean (65). Clearly, the physical India is inferior to the physical Italy, the latter being more exquisite than the former. Other comparisons are equally unflattering. Englands little lakes and mountains were beloved by them all. Romantic yet manageable, it sprang from a kindlier planet. Here an untidy plain stretched to the knees of the Maraba r (152). Since the initial audience of the novel was the English public, such direct comparison with the homeland inevitably causes such readers to form boundaries between here and there. By setting up the very boundaries that the Anglo-Indians can barely overcome in a fictional work, Forster limits the depth of his message. Forster, however, does not deliberately alienate his audience from India. Otherwise, A Passage to India would not criticize colonialism as it does. It is clear that Forster is opposed to colonialism and the effects of English occupation upon India, yet he seems unable to perceive India as other than other. For instance, while he portrays Chandrapore as filthy and repulsive, the English residences are neat and ordered. Inland, the prospect alters. There is an oval Maidan and a long sallow hospital. Houses belonging to Eurasians stand on the high ground by the railways station.It is a city of gardens (4). The English encampment, situated upon hills overlooking the city proper, is associated with the sky while the wretched city is the earth. Forsters association of these object pairs lends an unpleasant connotation to a later passage. .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .postImageUrl , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:hover , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:visited , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:active { border:0!important; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:active , .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158 .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u15fbc6bf0caf1afb40c2701aac410158:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Dan Kennedy EssayThe sky settles herself the earth can do little only feeble outbursts of flowers. But when the sky chooses, glory can rain into the Chandrapore bazaars or a benediction pass from horizon to horizon. The sky can do this because it is so strong and so enormous. Strength comes from the sun, infused in it daily; size from the

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Free Essays on I Stand Here Ironing

In the short story â€Å"I Stand Here Ironing† by Tillie Olsen, a mother looks back at her life as her daughter’s parent. In this short story the main characters are a mother and her daughter named Emily. The story is being mentally told by a mother, while ironing, explaining her daughter’s life from an infant to her teenage years. The mother is recalling Emily’s life due to being contacted by a possible counselor at Emily’s school. The mother’s painful reminiscence reflects the theme that a parent’s sincere efforts in raising children are often hampered by outside forces. There is a point in Emily’s life that shows her mother’s sincere efforts in rearing her daughter with the best intentions. The mother is monetarily providing for her daughter but sacrificing the mother-daughter bonding time. The mother is thinking about the time when Emily was eight months old and she had to leave her with a babysitter. The reason due to the mother taking a job and looking for more work was to support her new daughter. Emily’s father left her mother because he â€Å"could no longer endure (he wrote in his good-bye note).† The mother would leave Emily in the daytime â€Å"with the woman downstairs to whom she was no miracle at all.† The mother was nineteen when she gave birth to Emily during the â€Å"pre-relief, pre-WPA (Work Projects Administration) world of depression.† Emily’s mother â€Å"After a while [she] found a job hashing at night so [she] could be with [Emily] days. But it came to where [she] had t o bring her to [Emily’s father’s] family and leave her.† This is just one of the incidents that make the mother question her parenting practices. It seems that no matter what the mother tries to do to help the best interest of her daughter, it does not turn out as she planned. The mother continues to reflect upon Emily’s past years and their life struggles. The mother is still questioning her parental skills... Free Essays on I Stand Here Ironing Free Essays on I Stand Here Ironing Journal for I stand here Ironing In Tillie Olsen’s short autobiographical story I Stand Here Ironing, she gives the reader a glimpse into her life, the choices she made as a mother, and a single parent. The question of whom or what is to blame for Emily’s problematic childhood remains a mystery though, even after having read the story. Does the blame lie on the shoulders of the mother, or is it the circumstances of the world Emily was born into? When analyzing it psychologically, you could even (since the story is an autobiography in which she portrays herself as the mother) attribute the plight to the manner in which the mother was raised. You could even venture out and blame Emily for her own misfortune. The unfortunate circumstances that Emily was born into seem to contribute largely to Emily’s calamity. The mother â€Å"believes,† or tells herself and the person with whom she is speaking, that things such as her husbands abandonment, and her struggling economic situation gave way to little or no chance of proper care and nurturing. She even hints that the volatility of the socioeconomic and political situation of war contributed by mentioning in her final affirmation that she is a â€Å"child of her age, of depression, of war, of fear.† There is no doubt that the mother feels that Emily has been deprived of a â€Å"normal† childhood as defined by the social standards of the time, but never really claims herself as responsible for it. She also implies inadvertently that Emily’s character, or lack there of, contributes to her calamity. She hints at this by giving examples that portray Emily as passive and pessimistic. She speaks of Emily’s lack of â€Å"direct protest and rebellion.† She claims that Emily never had â€Å"the explosions, the tempers, the denunciations, the demands† that were common to three and four year old children. This implies that Emily was too passive, and was not clear enough when expre... Free Essays on I Stand Here Ironing In the short story â€Å"I Stand Here Ironing† by Tillie Olsen, a mother looks back at her life as her daughter’s parent. In this short story the main characters are a mother and her daughter named Emily. The story is being mentally told by a mother, while ironing, explaining her daughter’s life from an infant to her teenage years. The mother is recalling Emily’s life due to being contacted by a possible counselor at Emily’s school. The mother’s painful reminiscence reflects the theme that a parent’s sincere efforts in raising children are often hampered by outside forces. There is a point in Emily’s life that shows her mother’s sincere efforts in rearing her daughter with the best intentions. The mother is monetarily providing for her daughter but sacrificing the mother-daughter bonding time. The mother is thinking about the time when Emily was eight months old and she had to leave her with a babysitter. The reason due to the mother taking a job and looking for more work was to support her new daughter. Emily’s father left her mother because he â€Å"could no longer endure (he wrote in his good-bye note).† The mother would leave Emily in the daytime â€Å"with the woman downstairs to whom she was no miracle at all.† The mother was nineteen when she gave birth to Emily during the â€Å"pre-relief, pre-WPA (Work Projects Administration) world of depression.† Emily’s mother â€Å"After a while [she] found a job hashing at night so [she] could be with [Emily] days. But it came to where [she] had t o bring her to [Emily’s father’s] family and leave her.† This is just one of the incidents that make the mother question her parenting practices. It seems that no matter what the mother tries to do to help the best interest of her daughter, it does not turn out as she planned. The mother continues to reflect upon Emily’s past years and their life struggles. The mother is still questioning her parental skills...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Dragons Blood essays

Dragon's Blood essays The title of the novel that I read is Dragons Blood. The author of Dragons Blood is Jane Yolen. The major character in Dragons Blood, Jakkin, is introduced after the prolog, and talks about how he is looking for a dragon. The reason why he wants a dragon is to fill his bond bag with gold for him. This means that he is a slave and wants to buy himself out of bondage. The setting of Dragons Blood is mentioned in the prolog. In the prolog, it states that the boy Jakkin lives on Austar IV, which is a desert planet. When I read this, I immediately thought that there most likely is an Austar III etc. On Austar IV, Jakkin lives in a nursery for dragons. This is where he steals his dragon. The plot of this book is about Jakkin, who is in bondage. He steals a hatchling from the nursery, and raises it as his own. The reason why he did this, is to free himself from bondage. Jakkin has an external conflict with Akki, Jakkins masters daughter. Jakkin also has an internal conflict with himself. The climax of Dragons Blood is when the dragon Red, also known as Hearts Blood, wins her first pit fight. She almost kills her opponent because the other dragon does Fools Pride. Fools Pride is when a really good dragon is defeated and starts to whine implying finish me now. If a dragon kills another dragon then the killer either gets slaughtered or goes straight to the stews. Instead Jakkin persuades Red not to kill the other dragon and therefore Jakkins Red wins the tournament. The resolution is when Jakkin is finally freed from bondage. Jakkins master Sarkkhan frees him. Sarkkhan becomes Jakkins sponsor because only the first match is free, the others cost money. Anyone who has the double k in his or her name is either a slave or was a slave. Jakkin Stewart is the main character, and he is fifteen years old at the present ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Comparison of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William Essay

Comparison of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James theoretical positions - Essay Example The paper tells that Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James are historical psychologists whose work formed the foundation of psychology. Their theorems and practice in the field has had a great effect to this day. Most of the practicing psychologists in the present times borrow a lot from their work. However, this does not mean that their success in the field did not face challenges. The greatest of all the challenges for each one of them came from fellow psychologist. In efforts to outdo each other in their approach on psychological issues, similarities as well as differences developed that one cannot ignore. The four being the pioneers of psychology were passionate on getting better perceptive in the field. Their approaches aimed at getting facts that could better explain the psychological sphere of the human beings. This search for a better explanation led to common agreements on concepts like mental processes. They all believed that there was a conscious and a subconscious part of the human mind. These two spheres formed the basis for mental processes and Freud and Jung had similar views on dreams as a function of the unconscious mind. Jung in his theorem on individuation argued that human beings needed to incorporate both the conscious and unconscious mind to get the meanings to the dreams. Jung, Alder, and Freud agreed on the power of motive in human behavior. Childhood experience took the centre stage in the reason behind the motive. Cultural orientation, inferiority, and sexuality are all concepts that one gets from childhood. Since community and religious values influence a bigger part in them, the assimilation process into the child’s life is crucial because it affects relationships and psychological functioning of the individual (Meissner, 1987). Though the four could have differed in their theoretical positions of religion and the influence it has on human behavior, they all agreed that it plays a role in human psychology ( Dumont, 2010). Their theorems emphasized on religious interpretation of situations, and understanding of the world at large (Stone, 2011). Right from childhood, a child’s religion affects the way the child perceives different situations all the way to adulthood (Meissner, 1987). Contrast on Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James theoretical positions Just as the four psychologists are distinct, their theoretical positions equally had distinctions. They all had distinct approaches on the applicability of the concepts they all agreed were true. An example is in believing on mental processes that lead to human behavior. Human behavior as per Freud’s view required insight into thoughts and feelings for action to take place (Stone, 2011). Though Jung and Freud agreed on the unconscious part of dreams, their approaches on interpretation differed. Jung believed that religious nature formed the basis for interpretation hence dividing the unconscious into ind ividual and collective (Stone, 2011). For him, personal experience and concerns as well as collective religious believe influenced the interpretation (Dumont, 2010). However, this was different with Freud since to him mental processes and behavior took the centre of the dreams. James on the other hand came up with a completely different approach. To him, mental processes were a matter of evolutionary process meaning it is a function of constant changes (Stone, 2011). In his theoretical position on mental processes was more natural selection rather than emotions. Jung, Alder, and Freud agreed on the power of motive. While Freud believed that sexuality influenced motive, Jung and Adler had a different position. Jung considered culture,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Mercedes Cars Company in Doha Market Research Paper

Mercedes Cars Company in Doha Market - Research Paper Example This paper will present competition that Mercedes may face in the Doha automobiles market. With the help of this report, recent developments are also going to be discussed. Furthermore, the report will also present the details of entry of the organization into the market. Different financial facts and figures are going to be discussed regarding the new venture of Mercedes Cars Company. There are almost 60 automobile dealers in the Doha market. Being the capital city of the state of Qatar, the Doha market is highly competitive in nature. A number of top manufacturing automobile companies have their dealers in this particular market. It has been noticed that the market has registered impressive growth within the automobile sector. This is the reason that each and every automobile manufacturing company is competing very hard with the aim to increase their market shares in Doha. The market trends show that the demand for BMW cars is rising in the market, and as a result, BMW has register ed high selling figures. The year to year sales has increased by 30% when just considering its BMW 5 series model. BMW 7 Series model also was seen to produce higher sales in the market, as opposed to several other cars. It is very clear from the above facts that Mercedes Cars Company faces competition mainly from BMW car dealers. Apart from that, people of the city are greatly attracted to cars that do not belong to such big brands. Thus, this again points to the ever-increasing competition that exists in the automobile industry. As a result, there are lots of options in the Doha market for the public to choose from, ranging from top automobile manufacturing companies to small and newly entering brands.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Aoc vs the Constitution Essay Example for Free

Aoc vs the Constitution Essay The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution are only six years apart in history. Knowing this you would think that they have very few differences but it is the complete opposite. As soon as the Articles of Confederation were ratified, it got everyone thinking about how to create a good system of government. That is where the Constitution came in. The Constitution changed almost everything from the Articles of Confederation making the national government a lot more powerful. The Articles of Confederation were ratified in 1781. The goal of the Articles was to balance the need for national coordination of the War of Independence with the fear that centralized political power was a threat to liberty of the people. The Articles stated that the new national government was to be a perpetual union. The Articles gave the thirteen states their individual sovereignty, freedom and independence. Under the Articles the national government had a one house Congress, where each state cast one vote. There was no president and no judiciary. Major decisions needed the approval of nine states to be passed. There were only a few powers given to the national government which were to declare war, conduct foreign affairs, and make treaties with other governments. Congress did not have financial resources. It did not have the power to levy taxes or to regulate commerce. Revenue came from contributions from the states and in order to amend an Article you needed a unanimous decision from the states. This made it hard to amend or to change anything. The Articles basically made it impossible to have a national government on a large scale. The Constitution of the USA was adopted in 1787. The Constitution created a legislature, an executive, and a national judiciary. Congress was given the right to raise money without having to rely on the states, like in the Articles, and states were prohibited from infringing on the rights of property. The idea was that the government would represent the people. The Constitution established a two house Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate would include two members from each state and the House of Representatives would have members appointed according to the population of the state. Senators would be chosen by state legislatures while the Representatives would be elected by the people. This was the first step toward the expansion of democracy. The Constitution did not set any rules for qualifications to vote; they left that up to the states. The Constitution strengthened national authority. It gave the president the job of enforcing the law and commanding the military. It gave Congress the right to levy taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, declare war, and foreign policy. The Constitution declared the national legislature as the supreme Law of the Land. It did however leave the majority of day to day affairs up to the states such as education and law enforcement. It created a checks and balances system between the states and the national government. This was the idea to prevent any branch of the national government from dominating the other two. I think that the Constitution did a better job protecting liberty. This is because even though there were way more provisions and what seems like way more restrictions, it actually gave guide lines so that your basic rights would not be taken away from you. It also made the voting system more fair and the fact that the House of Representatives were proportioned to the population size also made a lot of sense. It also gave strict provisions to insure that the state could not infringe your land. I also think that the Constitution did a way better job running a government. First of all it was a lot more specific so it cleared up a lot of confusion. Second the two house Congress was a much better idea and the checks and balances were also smart because it ensured that no one ever got too powerful. I also think it is a good thing that they insisted on picking a leader, president, for the whole country because I think you need one man to lead the country and make the decisions rather than a few arguing all the time. Also giving the national government some of the powers that the states once had ensured that the law would be fair to everyone, not just the ones making them in the states. As you can see the differences between these two significant documents of our history are tremendous. While the Articles set a few provisions basically empowering the states, the Constitution did the exact opposite putting the national government in charge. Obviously this was the way to go because this is the document that our country still runs by today.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Philosophy Of Quality :: essays research papers

In respect to quality of materials, there are three well known philosophers whom are most referenced: W. Edwards Deming, Philip B. Crosby, and Joseph M. Juran. Throughout the twentieth century, these three men have continuously integrated new systems for improvement in the quality system. The first and probably most well known of these philosophers is W. Edwards Deming. Deming first came into the public eye when he was credited with assisting the Japanese after World War II and helping to elevate the Japanese industry into the forefront of world industry. Deming stresses that the most important part of quality is the role of management. Deming also emphasizes on achieving long term goals through cultural transformation rather then short term needs. Deming’s findings can be viewed best through his “System of Profound Knowledge,'; and his “14 Points of Management.'; While Deming was continually expanding his research, Philip B. Crosby entered the forefront of quality in the 1970’s. Crosby has been a consulter as well as a trainer for many leaders in the manufacturing industries. Like Deming, Crosby also has a “14-Step Pan for Quality Improvement.'; Crosby’s main focus is first evaluate the quality system and make improvements on the current system. Another of Crosby’s main concerns is defects. Crosby emphasizes that the performance standard should be “zero defects.'; The most recent of the philosophers is Joseph M. Juran. In the late 1980’s Juran founded an institute to consult and train management in quality. In addition to Deming, Juran also visited Japan to assist their industry at the end of World War II. Juran’s most famous theory of quality is his “quality trilogy,'; which focuses on planning, control and improvement of the quality system. Although Deming, Crosby, and Juran have never collaborated on their work, many similarities are apart in their beliefs. For example, all three men stress the importance of the management system. Also, they have created step-by-step processes by which industries should follow in order to prove the quality of their products. Another important point which is shared by all three men is that quality should be viewed as an entity. Regardless to the fact that all three have based their lives on the ambitious goal of developing a system to improve quality, there are several key differences exist amidst these three quality experts. First and foremost is their definition of quality. Deming uses statistical predictions, basing his entire view of quality on the quality of the process, not the product whereas Crosby and Juran focus more on the customer.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Irish Nationalism

Irish Nationalism: The Fight for Self-Government Since the late twentieth century, Ireland has been subject to varying types of English rule. There has been much debate on the degree of English rule in Ireland, but the call for a united Ireland was very popular among many Irishmen. Nationalistic feelings in Ireland saw a steady growth in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with many different movements looking to achieve Irish self-government. These nationalistic movements can be categorized into three groups: constitutional, revolutionary, and cultural nationalism.Whether by politics, violence, or education, Irish nationalistic groups each had their own ideas on how to achieve independence from English rule. Each group had its strengths, as well as its weaknesses that contributed to the overall success of the nationalistic movements. Constitutional nationalism, which encompassed nationalism through political forces, mainly involved the vision of Home Rule. Home Rule was the idea of having an Irish parliament to control domestic matters while Britain controlled external Irish affairs. The face for the Home Rule movement was Charles Stewart Parnell, a political leader and Irish landlord.Parnell is most commonly known as the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. He turned the Home Rule movement into a major political force dominating legislation, and proving it to be a vast encompassing party by gaining the widest possible support. Parnell was deemed the â€Å"Uncrowned King of Ireland†, possessing enormous political skills leading him to be extremely successful in the field of practical politics. However, political scandals led his leadership to be called into question and put his whole political career on the line.Charles Parnell’s skills led him to many accomplishments in politics. Parnell was elected president of the Irish National Land League in 1879 which campaigned for land reform, including the reduction of tenants ' rents during a time of economic disaster. He not only raised an enormous amount of funding for famine relief during a trip to America, but Parnell also used his position as president to gain the support of tenant farmers in his fight for Home Rule. The support that came from the Land Movement and its mass appeal aided Parnell in bringing the Home Rule party under the wing of the movement.One of Parnell’s greatest accomplishments was the conversion of William Gladstone and the Liberals to Home Rule. During the election of 1885 the Conservative party used Parnell in order to gain an electoral advantage. This tactic succeeded giving them the majority of seats in Parliament and ultimately leading to the Liberals under Gladstone coming to power with Home Rule party. Although Parnell enjoyed great success as the leader of the Home Rule party and as a notable force in the fight for domestic Irish self-government, his weaknesses limited the extent to which his political skills coul d carry him.Parnell accomplished a great amount in the fight for Home Rule, but ultimately he failed to achieve it. The reason he was unsuccessful was due to his greatest weakness, the scandal with Katherine O’Shea. During the time Parnell was elected leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party he began a relationship with Katherine O’Shea, wife of Captain William O’Shea. His fall from power occurred when Captain O’Shea filed for a divorce naming Parnell as the guilty party. â€Å"It was therefore Captain O’Shea and the divorce case which brought down Parnell†[1].Although many leading politicians had known about Parnell and O’Shea’s affair for some time, it was when Parnell did not challenge Captain O’Shea’s allegations that shocked the public. This caused Parnell to be revealed as an adulterer and discredited him as a leader. Gladstone was forced to distance himself from Parnell due to the fact that the Liberals had no chance of winning the next election with ties to Parnell. Without the support of Gladstone, Home Rule was not a possibility. In the end, Parnell’s strengths were his greatest weaknesses.His pride and iron will kept him from contesting Captain O’Shea’s allegations allowing O’Shea’s side of the story to go unchallenged and ultimately leading to Parnell's fall from power. Constitutional nationalists such as Charles Parnell used politics in pursuing Irish self-government. The strength of this method is that it delivers concrete results. Although Parnell was not able to achieve Home Rule himself he was able to gain support for the party, leading the way for John Redmond to get the third Home Rule Bill passed by the House of Commons.Before this time, no success of this magnitude had ever been achieved in the fight for Irish independence. The weakness of constitutional nationalism is that it is a time consuming method. It took two initial Home Rule Bil ls to be rejected, the first of which being introduced in 1886, until the third was passed in 1914. Parnell dedicated his political career to the pursuit of Home Rule and was not able to see it passed before his death. Even when the third Home Rule Bill was passed, the process of it becoming a law was suspended pending the end of World War I.Constitutional nationalism is successful in that it delivers results in the fight for Irish self-government; however, the process is long and grueling. Revolutionary nationalism was a more forceful, rebellious method in pursuing Irish self-government. Revolutionary nationalists were not afraid to use violence including assassinations, bombings, and even uprisings. The most popular uprising in the struggle for Irish independence was the Easter Rising, which took place shortly after Britain’s entrance into World War I. The main group involved in this revolutionary nationalistic movement was the Irish Republican Brotherhood.The Irish Republi can Brotherhood, or I. R. B. , devised a rebellion to overthrow Britain’s government in Dublin following the time tested dictum that England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity. While Britain had surely forgotten about Ireland and Home Rule, focusing its attention mainly on the war, the I. R. B. used it as an opportunity to rebel. Patrick Pearse, a key leader in the rising, chose Easter for the uprising for its biblical connotations of sacrifice and resurrection; he saw the rising as a ‘blood sacrifice’.The rebels hoped to take control of Dublin as well as initiate riots in order to start a revolt, in turn removing English rule. However, the rising was a military disaster. On top of many of the rebel’s plans being disrupted by the British, poor organization also led to an unsuccessful rebellion. Upon capture many of the rebels were condemned to execution including James Connolly, who was carried to a firing squad tied to a chair due to an i njury sustained during the rising.The nature of these executions led to anger among many Irishmen and turned the rebels into martyrs. The rising led to control of Irish politics shifting from the Irish Nationalist Party to the recently I. R. B. infiltrated Sinn Fein. This shift led the way for constitutional nationalists to push for a challenge to Britain’s control of Ireland. Revolutionary nationalists took a more direct approach in the fight for Irish self-government. Rebellions, such as the Easter Rising, sought to overthrow government in a revolution without political involvement.This approach is strong in that it is has been successful in the past, as seen by the American and French revolutionary wars. A revolutionary approach can shift power almost instantly rather than going through years of political negotiations. However, when unsuccessful, revolutions end in meaningless bloodshed. The Easter Rising at first seemed to be a failure, resulting in the deaths of many Iri shmen for no reason. Instead, Britain’s reaction resulted in the rebels becoming martyrs, and the British losing the hearts of the Irish people.Although the Easter Rising resulted in the deaths of many Irishmen, it also opened the door for constitutional nationalists to take control of parliament in the 1918 general election and for revolutionary nationalists to initiate the Anglo-Irish war. While constitutional nationalists focused on politics and revolutionary nationalists focused on rebellions, cultural nationalists focused on the revival of Gaelic culture and language. Just as constitutional and revolutionary nationalism was important in the fight for Irish self-government, so was cultural nationalism.It helped to foster a spirit of earnest nationality, invoking feelings of patriotism in young Irishmen. The Gaelic Athletic Association was established to do just this. Founded in 1884, the Gaelic Athletic Association aimed to establish an independent Irish organization dedi cated to promoting athletics as well as preserving Irish nationalism. The Gaelic Athletics Association not only encouraged education about Gaelic language and culture, but was also formed as an anti-British group closely associated with the Irish nationalistic cause.This association caused the GAA to get caught up in the troubled politics of the early twentieth century. In 1920 British soldiers interrupted a football match in Dublin firing shots into the crowd and onto the field killing fourteen people. This was a response to political violence that had occurred in Dublin earlier that day. This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday. However, the Gaelic Athletics Association was a non-violent one that was subject to the repercussions of being associated the nationalistic cause. The GAA is claimed to have been founded by the I. R.B. with the goal of getting Irish youth involved with an organization in order to form a physical power capable of pressuring the Home Rule party of the fu ture. Although the association had no violent or political intentions, it provided the depth that the Home Rule party needed in order to secure an independent, self-governing Ireland. Cultural nationalists were strong in that they united Irishmen in the fight for Irish nationalism. Cultural nationalists promoted camaraderie through athletics and focused on a revival of nationalistic feelings as well as Gaelic culture.They provided a unity of Irish people that was necessary to the success of a self-governing Ireland. However, cultural nationalists did not provide any concrete results in the pursuit of Irish independence. They brought together the Irish people but only to the extent that they were prepared to join a constitutional or revolutionary force. Nationalistic feelings were high in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Many nationalistic movements that existed sought to set up Irish self-government in one form or another.These movements were constitutional, revoluti onary, or cultural nationalistic groups. Each group possessed both strengths and weaknesses. Constitutional nationalists succeeded in political battles relating to domestic rule. However, their means were often time consuming and presented results that were not very certain. Revolutionary nationalists, on the other hand, were able to change the tides of the Anglo-Irish governmental struggle almost instantly. The bloodbath that resulted in their physical force, however, was the weakness of their methods.Finally, cultural nationalists were able to unite Irishmen in the fight for self-government promoting nationalistic feelings. Unfortunately, they provided no real means of progressing Irish nationalism in the fight for self-government. Constitutional nationalism had the most impact with the Home Rule party as well as the Dail Eireann (Assembly of Ireland) which helped to establish a treaty following the Anglo-Irish war in order to establish the Irish Free State. However, without the p hysical presence to back up the political force, Irish self-government would not have been possible.As Eamon de Valera stated, the way to Irish independence was â€Å"first battling England with votes, and if that failed, with rifles. †[2] All in all, each form of Irish nationalism contributed in some way to lead Ireland into a self-governing country. Bibliography [1] â€Å"PARNELL AND KITTY O'SHEA. † PARNELL AND KITTY O'SHEA. Web. 05 May 2012. . [2] â€Å"Troubled Ireland – Anglo-Irish War. † Troubled Ireland – Anglo-Irish War. Web. 05 May 2012. . [3] Hachey, Thomas E and McCaffrey, Lawrence J. The Irish Experience Since 1800: A Concise History. Armonk, N. Y: M. E. Sharpe, 2010. Print. ———————– [1] [1] [2] [2]

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Olympic rent-a-car company Essay

SUMMARY Olympic is a US rent-a-car company facing some changes in the market it operates. A competitor company (Enterprise) is changing its loyalty program. Olympic managers have to evaluate the impact of those changes and to take actions in order to respond correctly to those changes without losing market share and if possible taking advantage of the situation. The aim of this study is to evaluate those changes and to propose a recommendation to respond to these market changes. MARKET SUMMARY The car renting industry in US is a $24 billion industry dominated by 4 big players, Enterprise, Hertz, AVIS and Olympic with the following market revenue shares: Enterprise is the dominant player with 50% share ($12 billion) followed by Hertz with 24%, AVIS with 14%, Olympic with 7% and the other 5% are shared by smaller players. This business is heavily dependent of the overall state of the economy and since the global crisis of 2008 were there was a 6,5% break in total revenues, the revenues are recovering since 2009 growing between 2 and 3% every year. This revenue growth is due to the growth of prices rather to the growth in the number of clients. There are 2 big markets for the rent-a-car business, the Airport rentals and the Local rentals. The airport rentals contribute with 50% of the total revenue ($12 billion) and are divided into leisure and business clients. Costs are higher due to fees paid to the airports that consist in 10% of the revenue plus the fixed fees for counters. The local renting contributes with the other 50% ($12 billion) and the main clients are insurance companies. The counters are located at car dealerships and repair shops. Enterprise and Hertz are the main players in this market and Enterprise has more than 50% share. This industry is heavily influenced by the adaptation of the car fleet to demand and between 2008 and 2012 in response to the global crisis the total number of rent-a-car cars was diminished by 0,5%. CUSTOMER ANALYSIS In 2012, 27% of US adults (proximately 59.400.000 people) rented a car and the main renters were the business travelers. In 2012 airport market, 20% of the travelers were business travelers and gave origin to 80% of the revenue and the other 80% of travelers were leisure travelers and represent 20% of the revenues. Usually business travellers pay more than leisure travellers. This is mainly because leisure travelers pay smaller per day charges as they travel in lower revenue days, do preplanned trips and to loyalty program redemptions. Business travelers tend to earn points in business travelling and to spend those points in leisure travelling. Across this industry, Rent-A-Car companies tend to use loyalty programs to develop relationship between costumers. Each company has it’s own program but they are all very similar. The customer earns points depending of the number of days they rent the car and they also receive free upgrades. The earned points can be claimed and exchanged for rental days. In 2013 Enterprise changed the way their customers gain the loyalty program points. Customers that received points based in the number of days of usage now receive points based on the money they spend. This means that they earn more points faster. Usually clients don’t have any kind of restriction to participate in loyalty programs. Anyone that rents a car can be a member depending on the number of days they rent, as consequence people are members of several loyalty programs as they rent in different companies. The rental loyalty programs are not really differentiating rental companies they are a perk for customers. In 2012 10% of Olympic customers were members of Olympic medalist program and these customers provided 21% of the revenues. They paid for 3.996.000 days and claimed 375.000 free days. This means $323.400.000 of revenue come from members of Olympic medalist program, to this revenue we have to subtract the fixed costs, the free days cost and the program advertising costs ($28.000.000). The fixed cost is 20% of $21 ($4,2) multiplied by the total rental days and equal $1.575.000 and the free days cost is equal to $7.629.552. This gives an economic value of $233 per Olympic medalist program customer. The regular customers represent 79% of revenues that translate into $1.216.600.000. The total rental days for these customers are 24.681.000 and these days represent a cost of $103.660.200 (24.681.000 x $4,2). There are also the advertising costs of ($108.000.000 – $28.000.000 = $80.000.000). Subtracting to $1.216.600.000 the variable costs and the advertising costs we end with $1.032.939.800. Dividing this value by the total number of regular customers (11.052.000) the economic value of the regular customer is obtained and equals to $93. The conclusion is that loyalty program clients  still have a big economic influence in the revenue structure. COMPANY ANALYSIS Olympic is one of the four biggest rent-a-car companies in the US with a share of 7% of revenues witch is the smallest share of this group. The company as chosen to be a follower and has always priced lower than Hertz. It has 464 rental locations and a fleet of 108000 cars that remain in the company for 8 to 18 months. The income per car is slightly below de industry average and the reason for this maybe the dominance of airport counters that bring more costs to the company than a local counter. Olympic has seen an improvement on its revenues for the last 4 years and in table 1 we can see an increase of the net profit from a loss of $15 million in 2008 to a profit of $32 million in 2012. The main reason for these results is the company flexibility to adapt its car fleet to demand (table 2) as well as the adaptation of the number of counters the company has (table 3). RECOMMENDATION The recommendation is that Olympic rent-a-car doesn’t follow the Enterprise strategy. About 1,45% of the total rental days of 2012 involved free days and a free day reward costs about $21 to cover the fixed costs and the payment to the franchisee. Of the 108000 cars fleet each car was rented about 232 days per year. With this data we can calculate the total rental days. Total rental days are equal to 108.000 x 232; this means 25.056.000 rental days per year.  The 1,45% of the total rental days give us the total free days per year in 2012 this percentage represents 363.312 free days that multiplied by the cost of a free day ($21) will give us the cost of all the free days in 2012. The total cost for the free days is equal to $7.629.552. If Olympic decides to match the Enterprise offer, the number of free days will increase to a value between 1,65% and 1,95% of total rental days this means a number of free days between 413424 and 488592 and an increase of free days per year between 50.112 and 125.280 days, this means an increase in cost of the programs free days of $1.052.352 to $2.630.880 (1 million to 2,5 millions increase of free days cost per year). Considering that the demand will not increase a lot this means a net decrease of 3 to 8% of total profits. This decrease is significant for a company that has a small operating margin of 15,8%. The way Olympic responds to the enterprise initiative will be decisive in the profitability of the company. Matching the enterprise offer will lead to an increase in the costs and no increase in market share is guaranteed. Since no great increase in demand is predicted, following the Enterprise strategy would simply represent a 3 to 8% reduction in profits, Olympic cannot afford this reduction due to the narrow operating margin. Beside this, the fleet of Olympic rent-a-car is very well adapted to de demand and implementing no blackout days would probably let some Olympic medalist clients unsatisfied. Enterprise has a huge fleet and available cars this means that it can afford not having blackout days. The increasing usage of the Internet to compare prices and to book services will diminish the loyalty programs importance and effectiveness. Third party consolidators the online price comparisons and bookings bring a greater relevance to prices the rent-a-car companies practice. This will affect the companies’ loyalty programs effectiveness. By focusing on price, customers will chose a rent-a-car company by the price of the service taking to a second plan the loyalty programs benefits. This means that Olympic should focus on global cost reduction in order to keep lowering the prices and therefore gain advantage over the competitors. In the future the company  that has the lower prices will dominate the market. One other market tendency is the reduction of business travelling and the growth of internet based communications. This means that in future rent-a-car companies will have less business travellers, at this moment these clients are the heavy users of loyalty programs, and the leisure clients will gain weight on the revenue share. Olympic should maintain their loyalty program essentially due to the economic value of the loyalty programs customers ($233) much greater them the regular clients ($93) and improve the program by offering other kind of benefits that could improve the market penetration of the program. Some of these benefits could be faster pick up and drop off time for the program customers. Along the way the company could evaluate their loyalty program customers economic value and adapt to the expected decrease of loyalty program importance by reducing free rental days and using the savings of this reduction on rental price reduction. Since loyalty programs don’t benefit business companies Olympic offer the chance to this kind of customer to choose between the loyalty program benefits or a decrease in price. This should attract more large companies business maintaining the small and individual share. To reduce the cost structure Olympic should also try to gain market in the local business dominated by Enterprise and Hertz, this would help to avoid the large costs associated to the operation in airports. This way Olympic could gain market share of a market dominated by 2 companies, maintain their business market share threatened by the teleconferencing trends (shift to insurance) and to improve the global cost structure by taking advantage of the lower costs associated to this kind of counters.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on WalMart Stores Inc

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the world’s largest retailer, with $256.3 billion in sales in the fiscal year ended Jan. 31, 2004, 1.6 million associates worldwide, and more than 3,600 facilities in the U.S. and 1,570 units elsewhere. It is estimated that more than 138 million customers per week visit Wal-Mart stores worldwide. Wal-Mart has four retail divisions – Wal-Mart Supercenters, Discount Stores, Neighborhood Markets, and SAM’S CLUB warehouses. Each of these is guided by a passion for customer satisfaction and â€Å"Every Day Low Prices.† Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart, opened his first Wal-Mart in Rogers, Arkansas in 1962. In recent years, Wal-Mart has been named â€Å"Retailer of the Century† by Discount Store News and has topped the FORTUNE 500 list. ( Sam Walton’s basic beliefs were simple: â€Å"Give people high value, low prices and a warm welcome.† Walton built a culture based on one principle: make the customer number one and four basic beliefs: excellence in the workplace, respect for the individual, customer service, and â€Å"everyday low pricing.† Wal-Mart built its own warehouses so it could buy in bulk and have room to store the merchandise, then built stores in areas around the distribution points which cut the company’s costs and gave it more control over operations. Wal-mart lead the way with the development of their â€Å"hub-and-spoke† distribution system as more and more stores were opened. This allowed Wal-Mart to re-stock its stores quickly and kept the amount of unproductive store space to an absolute minimum which in turn resulted in higher sales per square foot and rapid inventory turnover ( As 2003 came to a close, Wal-mart faced some major challenges; some of them being, an unstable business environment, weak economic growth, and nervous consumers. All of which lead to minimal growth opportunities. European retailers wer... Free Essays on WalMart Stores Inc Free Essays on WalMart Stores Inc Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the world’s largest retailer, with $256.3 billion in sales in the fiscal year ended Jan. 31, 2004, 1.6 million associates worldwide, and more than 3,600 facilities in the U.S. and 1,570 units elsewhere. It is estimated that more than 138 million customers per week visit Wal-Mart stores worldwide. Wal-Mart has four retail divisions – Wal-Mart Supercenters, Discount Stores, Neighborhood Markets, and SAM’S CLUB warehouses. Each of these is guided by a passion for customer satisfaction and â€Å"Every Day Low Prices.† Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart, opened his first Wal-Mart in Rogers, Arkansas in 1962. In recent years, Wal-Mart has been named â€Å"Retailer of the Century† by Discount Store News and has topped the FORTUNE 500 list. ( Sam Walton’s basic beliefs were simple: â€Å"Give people high value, low prices and a warm welcome.† Walton built a culture based on one principle: make the customer number one and four basic beliefs: excellence in the workplace, respect for the individual, customer service, and â€Å"everyday low pricing.† Wal-Mart built its own warehouses so it could buy in bulk and have room to store the merchandise, then built stores in areas around the distribution points which cut the company’s costs and gave it more control over operations. Wal-mart lead the way with the development of their â€Å"hub-and-spoke† distribution system as more and more stores were opened. This allowed Wal-Mart to re-stock its stores quickly and kept the amount of unproductive store space to an absolute minimum which in turn resulted in higher sales per square foot and rapid inventory turnover ( As 2003 came to a close, Wal-mart faced some major challenges; some of them being, an unstable business environment, weak economic growth, and nervous consumers. All of which lead to minimal growth opportunities. European retailers wer...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How To Say Again in Spanish

How To Say Again in Spanish Although Spanish has no single word that means again, it has at least three common ways of expressing the concept. They are usually interchangeable. Key Takeaways: 'Again' in Spanish The most common way of expressing the concept of again in Spanish is by using the verb volver followed by a and an infinitive.The adverbial phrases otra vez and de nuevo also are frequently used to mean again.The phrase una y otra vez can be used to strongly emphasize the concept of again. Volver a + Infinitive Volver typically means to turn or to return, but when followed by the preposition a and an infinitive it is perhaps the most common way of saying again. If you think of volver a as meaning to return to, you can see how it can be used in all tenses and moods. Nunca volverà © a trabajar en esta ciudad. (I will never again work in this city.)Es probable que no vuelva a escribir. (She probably isnt writing again.)El jefe vuelve a vender acciones de Microsoft. (The boss is again selling shares in Microsoft.)Es importante que volvamos a tener un cierto respeto por el acto de comer. (It is important that we again have a certain respect for the act of eating.)Costanzo volvià ³ a defenderse. (Costanzo again defended himself.)No quiero que vuelvas a llorar. (I dont want you to cry again.)Quiero volver a viajar con mi madre a Buenos Aires. (I want to travel again with my mother to Buenos Aires.) Otra Vez Literally, otra vez means another time. Note that una should not precede this phrase. Its use is especially common in partial sentences, i.e., ones with no verb. In complete sentences, otra vez, like most adverbs, is usually placed next to (either directly before or after) or after the verb it modifies. The same is true for other again phrase show below. Siento que otra vez va a pasar lo mismo. (I feel the same thing is going to happen again.)Mucha tarea otra vez. (Much homework again.)Est otra vez de moda. (Its in style again.)Parece que olvidaron otra vez explicarme el problema. (It seems that they again forgot to explain the problem to me.)El mecanismo empezà ³ otra vez a responder. (The mechanism began to respond again.) De Nuevo Like otra vez, de nuevo can be used in partial sentences without a verb. Unlike the English equivalent of anew, its closest equivalent, de nuevo has colloquial as well as formal usage. Brasil, de nuevo campeà ³n mundial. (Brazil, again the world champion.)Voy a escribir de nuevo a usted tambià ©n. (Im going to write to you again.)Hace unos meses me hablà ³ de nuevo. (A few months ago she spoke to me again.)Empezarà © de nuevo sin mirar atrs. (I will begin again without looking back.)Tan pronto la tenemos, contactaremos de nuevo contigo. (As soon as we have it, we will contact you again.) Miscellaneous Translations of 'Again' A common equivalent of again and again is una y otra vez. El nuevo presidente se contradice una y otra vez. (The president contradicts himself again and again.)Es importante escuchar una y otra vez. (It is important to listen again and again.) ¿Hay pelà ­culas que podrà ­as ver una y otra vez sin cansarte? (Are there movies you could see again and again without getting tired of them?) There are a few idioms where again doesnt mean another time. Among them are its uses in the phrase now and again, which can be translated as de vez en cuando, and the phrase then again, which can be translated as por otra parte. Los delfines nos visitan de vez en cuando. (Dolphins visit us now and again. You could also translate this sentence to English using phrases such as occasionally and from time to time.)Si no te equivocas de vez en cuando, es que no lo intentas. (If you dont make a mistake now and again, its because you arent trying.)Por otra parte, no vamos a confiar en este software. (Then again, we arent going to trust this software. You also could translate this sentence using phrases such as on the other hand or furthermore, depending on the context.)Por otra parte, no queremos acusar a ellos de ser locos. (Then again, we dont want to accuse them of being crazy.)

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Interview a manger with regard to the various managerial functions Essay - 1

Interview a manger with regard to the various managerial functions - Essay Example According to Taylor, Nikesh has several managerial functions that include planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Nikesh is tasked with setting out plans of actions in order to attain the pre-determined organisational goals. Together with other executives, he prepares the strategic plans and operational plans for the entire organisation. Nikeshy is also tasked with organizing function in the company. For instance, he is tasked with providing personnel, raw materials and an organisational structure that contributes to the success of the organisation. He designs the job descriptions and creates reporting relationships within the organisation. According to Fayol’s commanding function, Nikesh is tasked with ensuring optimum utilization of human capital in the organisation. In this function, he delegates responsibilities and inspires the employees towards the attainment of the organisational goal. In the coordinating function, Nikesh is responsible for unify ing and harmonization of all activities and resources in the organisation (Williams 54). For instance, he coordinates the new product development and sales department in order to ensure that new products meet the changing customer needs. He is responsible for the creation of harmonious and coordinated working teams and groups in the organisation. The last managerial function of Nikesh according to Fayol is controlling function. He is responsible for evaluating the attainment of organisational goals. He evaluates the degree of conformity to organisational policies and attainment of budgeted financial performance (Williams 53). Nikesh Arora aspires to the interviewee since he has contributed highly to increased profitability and market share of Google. Nikesh has the management experience at this position since he has previously worked in a multicultural environment and other markets such as Europe and Africa. Nikesh has also

Friday, November 1, 2019

Beauty by Jane Martin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Beauty by Jane Martin - Essay Example Such a vision makes the individual become jealous. Consequently, the jealously consumes them and makes the unhappy with the characteristics and the assets they possess. At times, individuals can become discontent with their own lives such that they are very much willing to give up everything they own. This is in an attempt to take a different life or start over with different issues or problems. In the play, Beauty by Jane Martin, the main characters portray their lives as not desirable, and they wish to change their present status. Their actions clearly indicate how individuals tend to be not content with their lives despite what they have (NY Essay 1). The play Beauty is about two girls, Bethany and Carla. Their lives and personalities are developed through dialogue. Bethany is intelligent, and Carla is a beauty, and each has her own troubles. Bethany desires to become a beauty just like Carla, and her dream comes true through the assistance of a magic genie. Carla is a beauty, and she is the center of attraction by the men. She is always busy going to dates and having telephone conversations. However, she is not very good at studying and this can be ascertained by the fact that she cannot even remember what she has read previously. Bethany, on the other hand, is outstanding in school. She earns $40,000 from her job, and she has published several short stories. However, she is not as beautiful as Carla, and this makes her desire to become a beauty (Fryfreely 1). As mentioned before, Beauty by Jane Martin is a play, and she introduces the main characters through a dialogue. The first, main character is Carla, and she is seen speaking on the phone with a casual suitor that she had met at the bar, and she seems not to remember the suitor. From this scenario, it is evident that Carla possesses some form of beauty that grabs male attention even without any real interaction. Her beauty can be ascertained when she mentions that she has to attend a modeling meeting w ith Ralph Lauren. The second main character is Bethany; she is one of Carla’s friend and apparently a very good friend because she minds less interrupting Carla on the phone. She does this despite the fact that Carla requests her to be quiet. Bethany is a public accountant, and her job is very demanding. This makes her decide to take a break from work and go to the beach where comes across a lamp containing a magic genie (NY Essay 1). Bethany is granted three wishes and three chances by the magic genie to get something she would not have gotten in her normal life. The magic genie is used by Martin, to uncover Bethany’s discontent and hidden desires in her life (NY Essay 1). After testing the magic genie, Bethany races, to inform Carla that the genie is real. She requires assistance in deciding what her last (third) wish should be. For Carla, it is all about the money but for Bethany, it is the desire to become like Carla. She desires her glamorous life style and beauty . Bethany tells Carla that beauty is the actual deal and that she, (Carla) is the center of any moment in her life; people stare and men flock at her (Christian 27). Carla responds by saying that she cannot engage a conversation without men coming to her. She suggests that she possesses no privacy and that she is hassled on the streets. She further says â€Å"Well, it’s not what I want.† â€Å"I have never read a whole book.† â€Å"I leave dinner parties right after the dessert because I’m out of conversation.† â€Å"I barely exist outside a mirror! You don’t want to be me† (Christian 27). Bethany is begged by Carla not make this despicable wish, but it is already overdue. In the end, they switch positions and become each other. Both Carla and Bethany had

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

People resourcing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

People resourcing - Essay Example These changes offer organizations opportunities and challenges for success in equal measure. These conditions cause the change the nature of human resource planning. Success in the current dynamic market requires companies to improve performance. Improvement includes reducing costs, improving quality, innovativeness, creativity, and speed aimed at productivity. These duties rest on people who make up the organization because they make both long-term and short term organizational solutions. Human resources encompass most important resources in any organization that operates with the aim of achieving success (Wernerfelt 1984, 19). A volatile business environment means that the management of business organizations must comprehend that primary means of gaining competitive advantage have changed. The business world has seen various companies collapse in the economic recession that is slowly being managed. Companies hit by the recession range from world leading insurance, manufacturing, an d processing companies. National governments across the world had to salvage some the companies to save them from imminent collapse. The environment saw other companies close their operations in some parts of the world to minimise expenditure. The economic downturn did not spare national economies with Greece’s economically crumbling. The European Union is struggling to help the country resuscitate its economy. Italy is also struggling. Human resource planning must be used to develop new strategies that will help the company remain competitive in the market. Human resource planning helps the company to consider issues that enable gaining of competitive advantage. The management of companies should recognize that usual sources of success are still reliable but human resource planning enhances sustainability of success. Usual mechanisms that lead to success include economies of scale, production technology that covers both process and product, and protected markets. The input b y success factors offers competitive advantage. Human resources appear at the top of the ladder in the management hierarchy of organizations. This illustrates their importance in the running of business companies. Human resources management conducts job analysis processes before recruiting qualified employees with appropriate skills for specific jobs. It also enhances commitment of employees and makes sure that the company retains the best by taking care of their welfare (Lado 1994, 31). When the human resource department does this, it motivates employees because it takes care of the needs of the workforce. A business organization enjoys a competitive advantage by creating value for its clients. The organization must focus on product and service differentiation. It is important that the company give services and products that are unique. To do this, human resources must single out different markets and treat them as individuals. The concentration should be on particular market segme nts or groups and make sure that the products and services they receive are effective and more efficient than those provided by competitors are in the same market (Wright 2007, 56). In the process of achieving competitive advantage, human resources take a three-pronged approach including cost leadership,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Public Myth vs Social Reality Essay Example for Free

Public Myth vs Social Reality Essay Pierre Bourdieu asserts that public opinion does not exist. This poses the question, how should we conceive public opinion? If it is true that the public does not exist, than the real question is, whose opinion is public opinion? Rational Choice Theory poses that idea that human beings form their opinions and decisions based on collective observations and calculations. It also assumes all individuals are well informed of all of their options and that it is an inherent human tendency to think everyone makes decisions this way. If this is true, it would explain the blind faith people have in public opinion. It is a faith so devout, it often sways and molds popular culture ideals. Pierre Bourdieu strongly negates this view. Pierre Bourdieu is a highly acclaimed French sociologist. Born on August 1, of 1930, he recently passed away on January 23, 2002. His views embody the disciplines of many tenets including: philosophy, literary theory, sociology, and anthropology. He is the protagonist of the world of sociological studies, and he opposed and debunked some of the most prevalent antagonisms in the genre. His most popular work is Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. In the 1967 study, he interprets how members of the upper class define taste as an aesthetic. He finds that the public has no genuine representation in democratic societies. Rational Choice Theory is the theory that assume human beings naturally choose a given path dependant on whether it is the best means to achieve their goals. It is a belief in methodological individualism; this meaning it adopts the belief that social situations, and group behavior is solely the result of individual action. Within this theory, corporations and national governments are viewed as individual operators as well. The problem that arises with this theory are the certain assumptions. This theory assumes human beings are aware of certain information, of which they aren’t always aware, and it assumes that individuals consistently make mental calculations to determine their next decision. Bourdieu is historically known for his opposition to this theory, based on the fact that he feels human beings operate more based on how they feel toward a given situation or at a given time. In his book, Outline Theory of Practice, Bourdieu analyzes human nature. He points out the human tendency to conform. Doing one’s duty as a man means conforming to the social order, and this is a fundamentally a question of respecting rhythms, keeping pace, not falling out of line. ‘Don’t we all eat the same wheat cake? Don’t we all get up at the same time? These various ways of reasserting solidarity contain an implicit definition of the fundamental virtue of conformity. (Bourdieu, 1977) He later goes on to show that conformities only other opposition is eccentricity, which becomes natural for those intrigued by it irregularity. The opposite of which is the desire to stand apart from others. Working while the others are resting, staying in the house while the others are working in the fields, traveling on deserted roads, wandering round the streets of the village while the others are asleep or at the market – these are all suspicious forms of behavior. The eccentric who does everything differently (Bourdieu, 1977) Bourdieu believes that society cannot just be analyzed in terms of economic classes and ideologies, but that individual education and culture must be applied as well. Bourdieu does not separate people based on class and then analyze them, but groups everyone into what he calls a field/ social arena. This contradicts classic Marxism. In this field people compete and struggle to attain their desires. It is a system of social positions organized by terms of power relationships. This idea of terms of power is most easily defined as the differential between a judge and a lawyer. Within this field the social agents fight over monetary gain, or whatever holds symbolic significance. In all of Bourdieu’s beliefs, his most popular is his assertion that the public does not exist (1984). This concept is addressed in his book, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, in that he feels there is a different of class taste between the ruling class and popular culture. But, within this conflict, there is no public, only a media mediating between the two and a culture to which they often cater to do so. Jon Simons addresses this concept in his essay, Governing the Public: Technologies of Mediation and Popular Culture, when he says, technologies constitute the people as a mediated public. The public is only amenable to representation in the form of an electorate which is an effect of technical organization that can mediate between people at a distance from each other. The key point of this analysis is that the public does not exist prior to or outside of its constitution. (Simons, 2002) His essay evaluates the importance of media technologies within a democracy. Bourdieu feels that in this field of power struggle, the ruling class uses their cultural capital to assert their distinction (1984). This is seen in the way politicians might only use terms or syntax understandable to the elite of society. This separation between popular culture and the elite culture of a society makes it virtually impossible for government officials to ever get the unanimous appeal for which they often aspire. Most political elites view popular cultures’ apathy towards politics with great disdain. Even still, they relentlessly attempt to relate to popular culture voters, whom they know will support them. In John Fiske’s critique on television, Television Culture he analyzes the nature of what makes popular television. He concludes that the shows that succeed in gaining popularity tend to have many symbols and plot lines containing multiple meanings. He also states that remain within a duality of containment and resistance (1987). This idea basically revolves around the fact that television producers, who are viewed as the upper class and political elite, are expected to produce material that correspond with popular culture. This material that the elite minority culture produces for the popular culture contradicts elitist ideals but allows the status quo to remain intact. This means the political elite can only remain the elite so long as they humor the beliefs and ideals of their less powerful but more dominant counterparts. The rules Fiske establishes for television shows can very easily be applied to the media. They present the media as a tool being used to prey on the wants and needs of different cultures. Another media technology that isn’t always addressed is the literary outlets in societies. This is undoubtedly the reason that Pierre Bourdieu is an acclaimed literary theorist as well, addressing such theorist as reader response theory. Reader response theory augments the importance of the role of the reader in interpreting texts. It disagrees that there is a solitary, fixed meaning integral to every literary work. This theory embraces that an individual creates his or her own meaning through a transaction with the text based on personal associations. Because all readers bring their own emotions, concerns, life experiences, and knowledge to their reading, each interpretation is subjective and unique. It is common that many people trace the foundation of reader-response theory to scholar Louise Rosenblatts influential 1938 work Literature as Exploration. She believed, close readings of literature should practice impassiveness in the study of texts and should reject all forms of personal interpretation by the reader. The text is an independent entity that could be objectively analyzed using unambiguous methodological criteria (Rosenblatts, 1938). Her work has been the topic of study for many professors and theorists who specialize in this form of analysis. In Fish’s piece, Is there a text in this class? The authority of interpretive communities, he argues that the readings of a text are culturally constructed. He feels that reader-response theory recognizes the reader as an active agent who imparts real existence to the work and completes its meaning through interpretation. Reader-response is an experience that every user goes through during the act of reading, it transpires and it affects reader and sometimes this counteracts to force user to do some practical reaction (Fish, 1986). This aspect of Stanley Fishs theory is one of the most radical and controversial and is part of the reason why many people object to the views backing this movement. He adds further rational to his stance with his view that most of the theories that are formulated on the grounds of practical experiences are likely to be accurate and are easily acceptable. The reader of reader-response theory is not just a hypothetical or theoretical reader, he is a practical reality (Fish, 1986). Since this theory has exact results it effects lives, personalities, cultures and societies. There are also some theories that fail but the reason of their failure is not the notion of being a textual work, it is their impractical approach that disappoints them (Fish, 1986). Fish’s attempt to place reader-response theory in a position of practical perspective more certifies its methodology. His political stance frees other theorists to do more in-depth analysis. Applied to the idea of public interpretation, we see that there is again another outlet for public opinion to be controlled through the targeting of specific popular culture emotions or ideals, and triggering whatever reader response might favor certain positions, or corporations. I’m sure news paper, and magazine advertisers are well studied in reader response-theory. Despite the insurmountable methods of control instilled on individuals, through popular culture, by the media, Simons argues that there are certain times when citizens group together in masses and act on their own apart from the propaganda projected by the media. A prime example of liberal citizens standing up and countering Bourdieu’s perception of public opinion is the Civil Rights movement in America. It was a much needed, and detrimental, shift in popular culture and eventually governmental law. A more contemporary version of this would be Hurricane Katrina, or 9/11. In her article Al Qaeda, Terrorism, and Military Commissions’, Ruth Wedgwood proves that though most American citizens consider terrorism to be a federal and national problem, it is very much a local one. Al Qaeda’s published doctrine maintains that there are no innocent civilians in Western society (Wedgwood, pg2)†¦ She later goes on to analyze the psychological foundation they use to form their tenet. She says,†¦this tenet leads it to [committing] the gravest of international crime[s] (Wedgwood, pg2). All of these qualities impose a large enough threat to individual human ideals and popular culture that a public arises from a nonentity. We also see this with protests. Here is where the weakness lies in Bourdieu’s theory. Despite this, we still see the prevention of certain liberal up risings maintained by systems of control, like racial, sexual and religious prejudice, or even class prejudice through the myth of the American Dream. The American dream that one can become something from nothing is the main reason why America is the fastest growing country. It is often seen as a melting pot encompassing many different religions and nationalities. People move to America with dreams of becoming wealthy, but many of the ideologies that have existed within the country for years inhibit these dreams from coming true. It is Harlon L. Dalton’s belief that Horatio Alger’s writings, during the mid to late 1800’s, promoted a destructive myth that overlooked the realities of society. Dalton specifically targets Alger’s story Ragged Dick, about a young man who devoutly works his way up the American corporate ladder slowly succeeding based on his merit. Dalton feels the myth implied by this is that the American dream is accessible to all those who are willing to work for it. Alger has been a highly acclaimed writer in American culture, and the popularity of his work partly suggests that most Americans have and inherent belief in this myth. If this mindset is a part of the mental tapestry of America, and it is as destructive as Dalton claims it to be, it would mean that American’s are inherently delusional. One might argue that this is only the problem of the minorities in this country, but Dalton protests that part of the want for most Americans to believe in this myth is fueled by a white discomfort with addressing the reality of a racial problem in America. He identifies this when he says, By interring the myth of Horatio Alger, or at least forcing it to coexist with social reality, we can accomplish two important goals. First, we can give the lie to the idea that Black people can simply lift themselves up by their own bootstraps. With that pesky idea out of the way it is easier to see why White folk need to take joint ownership of the nation’s race problem†¦ (Dalton) This idea of dual ownership for racial injustice is a concept Dalton feels most whites avoid and is a concept we see on many occasions being played out by the media in daily society. This is just a perfect example of the power of popular culture to create a sense of public opinion. In Horatio Alger’s day, the sociological circumstance of America was perfectly visible to every individual, but people chose to adopt the popular false reality projected from Alger’s novels. Alger was noted for not being a very skilled writer, and the majority of his novels were written solely for the purpose of maintaining his extremely large fan base, so he made sure his books adhered to certain ideals. Most of these ideals involved the overlooking of racial stratification. Racial stratification that existed in the U. K. at the beginning of the last century also deprived its colored citizens from the access to the most valuable resources the American society had, from the education, proper medical treatment etc. To make the Afro-Americans believe in the uniqueness of the whites they developed ridiculous theories of the mental or physical prevalence of their race. (Banton, 1998) Despite this, America wins the title for being the most racially conflicted, and thus corrupted. This corresponds with Bourdieu’s view that ethnicity and education will be one’s core sources of decision making, as apposed to ideology (1984). The first persuasion, which is that everyone can participate equally and can always start over, is troubling, as throughout most part of the American history, women of any race and men who were Native American, Asian, black, or just poor, were barred from all but a narrow range of elective positions. White men, especially European immigrants, able to ride the wave of the Industrial Revolution to comfort or prosperity, have always been the most valued members of the American society. Those who do not fit to that description, disappear from the collective self-portrait. The situation is that not only has the ideal of universal participation been denied to most Americans, but also the very fact of its denial is been denied in our national self-image. This state of things determines deep misunderstandings and correspondingly deep political tensions. This is especially true for the victims of racial attacks. Social stratification, according to some scientists has always accompanied the life of the human beings, after appearing on the down of the humankind history. The reason for its existence is a very simple one and it’s that the amount of resources this planet can provide is limited, thus it’s impossible to give everything needed or desired to everyone. As we all know people have always been unequal. It was determined by numerous factors even many centuries ago, and nowadays the amount of those factors has increased greatly. Despite of the principles about the equality of all of the societys members that are declared in the contemporary society nowadays, the phenomenon of discrimination still exists in our country. This problem is enforced by Bourdieu’s public opinion created by the media, and heartfelt by many individuals. From one viewpoint it is only natural for people to treat those a certain way in accordance with their age, gender, religious beliefs, physical condition, but when these peculiarities are used for to determine the persons rights or regulate his or her freedom of action and choice, it created huge problems in interpersonal and social communication, and other processes. One is only left to wonder what the state of racism would be in this country if it wasn’t constantly displayed as the symbol of western society. One might argue, like in the case with Horatio Alger, the disregard of racism only resulted in its unacknowledged enhancement. The very purpose of the Civil Rights movement in the states was to allow whites the opportunity to see how black were being treated by the police Lots of books and articles written recently, state that the degree of negative discrimination is still very high in the U. K. , which strings the social relations up, and leads to numerous conflicts within various racial groups. Martha Minow addresses this in many of her writings. In her essay on identity, titled Not Only for Myself Identity, Politics, and the Law, she says, There are two kinds of people in the world†¦those who think there are two kinds of people, and those who do not (Minow, 1997). Her essay reveals the ever segregating nature of Western Civilization, while she takes a clear stance in favor of the universal individual. Her essay takes an in depth look at the attitude that is truly necessary for one to make a lone effort towards furthering the genuine full racial integration of the United Kingdom. Her essay condemns all those who settle into social tribes of convenient sameness. To encourage those who oppose conforming to the common American culture of segregation, she describes in detail the trials of a young Nathan Marx. The story also suggests how an identity is founded on both the views of others and the individual; Marx is treated as a Jew both by his non-Jewish fellow officers and by the Jewish trainees. Both kinds of treatment influence his sense of himself as a Jew. Although he resists both, he defines himself in the course of that resistance (Minow, 1997). Here Minow points out a key factor of equality in that individuals all find equality in others in the fact that they refuse to be solely identified ethnically. Those who rather remain segregated are incapable of seeing others as equal to them and just harbor hate. This is a complexity that the U. K. often shares with the U. S. The ironic factor in this circumstance is that racial and religious separatism is just as much the result of the media as it is the people at adhering to it. If we look at the statistics found by the 2005 United States Census Bureau, the discrepancies in success among ethnicities is quite revealing.